China and India have committed to meeting emissions targets under the Paris Agreement. China has pledged to reduce the carbon intensity of its economy by 60-65% from 2005 levels by 2030. India has committed to reducing the emissions intensity of its economy by 33-35% from 2005 levels over the same period. Before we begin to examine the facts, let us remember what the Paris Agreement is. Signed in 2015, it is the first truly universal agreement between nations to combat climate change. It`s not perfect, but the agreement has strengthened the clean-up momentum of economies around the world. Q: What does the agreement require of countries? In the end, all parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,” but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  The level of NCC set by each country will determine the country`s objectives. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because of the lack of specificity, normative nature or language necessary to establish binding standards.  In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NDC on a specified date and not for an application if a defined target is not achieved in an NDC.
T82  There will be only a “name and shame” system  or as UN Deputy Secretary General for Climate Change, J. Pésztor, CBS News (US), a “Name and Encouragement” plan.  Since the agreement has no consequences if countries do not live up to their commitments, such a consensus is fragile. A cattle of nations withdrawing from the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of other governments and lead to the total collapse of the agreement.  The adoption of the agreement sends a message to the world that they take the fight against climate change seriously. It is a remarkable triumph that the 196 parties to the Convention have reached this agreement. As explained in this C2ES edition letter, the participation of the United States in the Paris Agreement can only be decided by the President, without, among other things, seeking the Council and the approval of the Senate, because of the establishment of an existing treaty, the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. If Biden is president, he would have enough authority to join it as an “executive convention.” If the United States joined the agreement, it would be technically necessary to implement an NDC within 30 days. While formal adherence to the agreement is simple, the biggest challenge for a Biden administration would be to present a new U.S. NDC, widely seen as ambitious and credible. Since the Paris Agreement is expected to apply after 2020, the first formal inventory of the agreement will not be carried out until 2023. However, as part of a decision attached to the agreement, the parties decided to restart the five-year cycle with a “facilitation dialogue” on collective progress in 2018 and the presentation of the NDC by 2030 to 2020.
The agreement is ambitious and offers all the instruments we need to combat climate change, reduce emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W.